A description of humans brain role and characteristics

Anatomy of the Brain There are different ways of dividing the brain anatomically into regions. The forebrain or prosencephalon is made up of our incredible cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland among other features. Neuroanatomists call the cerebral area the telencephalon and use the term diencephalon or interbrain to refer to the area where our thalamus, hypothalamus and pineal gland reside.

A description of humans brain role and characteristics

Taxonomy Genome Description and Significance The genus Trypanosoma contains a large number of parasitic species which infect wild and domesticated animals and humans in Africa. Commonly known as African sleeping sickness, human trypanosomiasis is caused by the species Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted to humans through either a vector or the blood of ingested animals.

The most common vector of Trypanosoma brucei is the tsetse fly, which may spread the parasite to humans and animals through bites. Through a process known as antigenic variation, some trypanosomes are able to evade the host's immune system by modifying their surface membrane, esentially multiplying with every surface change.

As the disease progresses, Trypanosoma brucei gradually infiltrates the host's central nervous system. Symptoms include headache, weakness, and joint pain in the initial stages; anaemia, cardiovascular problems, and kidney disorders as the disease progresses; in its final stages, the disease may lead to extreme exhaustion and fatigue during the day, insomnia at night, coma, and ultimately death.

Human trypanosomiasis affects as many as 66 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomes are also found in the Americas in the form of Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes American human trypanosomiasis, or Chagas' disease.

This disease is found in humans in two forms: The vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi include members of the order Hemiptera, such as assassin flies, which ingest the amastigote or trymastigote and carry them to animals or humans.

A description of humans brain role and characteristics

The parasites enter the human host through mucus membranes in the nose, eye, or mouth upon release from the insect vectors. Left untreated, Chagas' disease may cause dementia, megacolon, and megaesophagus, and damage to the heart muscle, and may result in death. Chromosome I's sequence has been completed and has yielded genes and five novel gene families.

Cell Structure and Metabolism Trypanosome cells are small and heterotrophic; they share common characteristics with other members of the phylum Euglenozoa, particularly the stiffening paraxial rod in the flagellum, and characteristics common to the order Kinetoplastida, specifically a large clump of DNA located at one end of the unusually long mitochondrion known as the kinetoplast.

Trypanosoma's cell structure plays a vital role in allowing the cell to morph into three forms trypomastigote, epimastigote, and amastigote during its lifecycle, depending on where the cell is located in the host's anatomy.

The location of the kinetoplast in relation to the nucleus and the flagellum emergence dictate in which stage the trypanosome cell is found. Key sources of the cell's energy, for example acid calcisomes and reservosomes, continue to intrigue scientists.

Drug studies that have been performed in order to curb the parasite's energy have yielded information regarding energy-producing glycosomal enzymes, purine and sterol byosynthetic pathways.

Trypanosoma uses several methods in order to penetrate the host's cell: The cell's unique structure allows the trypanosome to invade the host cell usually with little or no difficulty, resulting eventually in cell rupture, release of trypomastigotes, and their subsequent multiplication.

Trypanosoma cruzi cells differ from their African relatives Trypanosoma brucei in that no replication occurs in the bloodstream; rather, the cells are only able to replicate after another cell has been penetrated. Cell Structure of Trypanosoma.Brain Surgeon: Job Description, Salary, Duties and Requirements.

Learn about the education and preparation needed to become a brain surgeon. Get a quick view of the requirements as well as details. In humans, the effects of strokes and other types of brain damage have been a key source of information about brain function.

Because there is no ability to experimentally control the nature of the damage, however, this information is often difficult to interpret.

Human - Homo sapiens - Details - Encyclopedia of Life

The thalamus is a limbic system structure and it connects areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in sensory perception and movement with other parts of the brain and spinal cord that also have a role in sensation and movement.

As a regulator of sensory information, the thalamus also controls sleep and awake states of consciousness. The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as initiativeblog.com brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body.

In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 10–20 billion neurons, and the estimated number of neurons in. The brain is one of the most complex and magnificent organs in the human body.

Our brain gives us awareness of ourselves and of our environment, processing a constant stream of sensory data. It controls our muscle movements, the secretions of our glands, and even our breathing and internal temperature.

May 14,  · Based on the regions of the brain that Homo naledi shared with modern humans, the authors suggested that it may have exhibited complex behavior.

Brains | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program