The Pros and Cons Inclusion: The Pros and Cons Introduction Few issues in education generate more discussion, confusion, or apprehension than the topic of inclusion. It is an issue that has outspoken advocates on all sides, whether staunchly for, avowedly against, or somewhere in between. Certainly, for a school or district to change and accommodate a more inclusive approach to providing services to students with disabilities as well as a host of other "at-risk" students, and do it in a way that ensures the success of all, will require significant restructuring.
WEAC represents K public school teachers and education support professionals, as well as faculty and support staff in the Wisconsin Technical College System, retired members, and university students studying to become educators.
Visit our Home Page at www. Inclusion remains a controversial concept in education because it relates to educational and social values, as well as to our sense of individual worth.
Any discussion about inclusion should address several important questions: Do we value all children equally? There are advocates on both sides of the issue. James Kauffman of the University of Virginia views inclusion as a policy driven by an unrealistic expectation that money will be saved.
Furthermore, he argues that trying to force all students into the inclusion mold is just as coercive and discriminatory as trying to force all students into the mold of a special education class or residential institution.
Between the two extremes are large groups of educators and parents who are confused by the concept itself. They wonder whether inclusion is legally required and wonder what is best for children. They also question what it is that schools and school personnel must do to meet the needs of children with disabilities.
While recognizing that there are no simple answers, this paper attempts to give an overview of the concept of inclusion and offers a set of recommendations that can help to ensure that we meet the needs of all students. Definitions In order to discuss the concept of inclusion, it is first necessary to have a common vocabulary.
The following have been edited for clarity. This concept is closely linked to traditional forms of special education service delivery.
Inclusion Inclusion is a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. It involves bringing the support services to the child rather than moving the child to the services and requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class rather than having to keep up with the other students.
Proponents of inclusion generally favor newer forms of education service delivery. All services must be taken to the child in that setting. In addition to problems related to definition, it also should be understood that there often is a philosophical or conceptual distinction made between mainstreaming and inclusion.
In contrast, those who support inclusion believe that the child always should begin in the regular environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom.
Does Federal Law Require Inclusion? Two federal laws govern education of children with disabilities.
Neither requires inclusion, but both require that a significant effort be made to find an inclusive placement. However, IDEA recognizes that it is not appropriate to place all children in the regular education classroom.
In developing the Individual Education Program IEP for a child with disabilities, the IDEA requires the IEP team to consider placement in the regular education classroom as the starting point in determining the appropriate placement for the child. The purpose of these requirements is to carry out the intent of the IDEA, which is to educate as many students with disabilities as possible in the regular education classroom, while still meeting their unique, individual needs.Teaching models in which general and specialized personnel work together as a team are effective and efficient ways of arranging adult support to meet diverse student needs (National Center on Educational Restructuring and Inclusion, ; Villa, b).
This paper describes a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge). The Best Evidence Encyclopedia is a free web site created by the Johns Hopkins University School of Education’s Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.
Department of Education. This article argues that seeing research in inclusion in close connection with research in effective teaching strategies and classroom management will contribute to an enrichment of the two research fields and give teachers and researchers new opportunities for developing more inclusive schools.
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7 STRATEGIES THAT WORK Creating a School-Wide Culture Celebrating the Success of All Students Developing Interdisciplinary Collaboration Implementing Effective Co-Teaching Establishing Active Learning Environments Implementing Successful Evidence-Based Instruction Improving Grading and Assessment Which one do you struggle with the most.