Determinants of newspaper circulation

Bloomberg Paper money, too, is the responsibility of the Federal Reserve. At one time, the Federal Reserve Banks were legally required to keep large stockpiles of gold in reserve to back up these notes, but that requirement was abandoned and today the notes are backed up mostly by government securities. But I do have one question: The Federal Reserve does not own any gold at all.

Determinants of newspaper circulation

Chan Find articles by Sophia S. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received May 6; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Background Health communication inequalities were observed in Western population but less is known about them among the Chinese. We investigated health information seeking behaviours and its social determinants among Chinese adults in Hong Kong.

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Logistic regression was used to yield adjusted odds ratios aOR of health information seeking for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status education, employment and incomechronic disease and behaviours smoking, drinking and physical activity.

Results Among subjects in all surveys, most Conclusions This study has provided the first evidence on health information inequalities from a non-Western population with advanced mass media and Internet penetration.

Socioeconomic inequalities and behavioural clustering of health information seeking suggested more resources are needed for improving health communication in disadvantage groups. Introduction Social factors play important roles in explaining health disparities and one plausible mechanism is through inequalities in health communication, defined as the difference in accessing, seeking, processing and acting on information by different groups in a society [1][2].

Mass media and Internet are main sources for health information seeking and their influence is evident across the continuum of health from disease prevention, treatment to recovery or end of life [3]. Benefits of health information, particularly among patients with chronic diseases e.

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Although health information seeking behaviour HISB is partly explained by psychological factors e. Seeking health information requires both financial resources and cognitive skills developed through schooling which puts those from a lower socioeconomic status SES at a greater disadvantage.

Determinants of newspaper circulation

Health communication behaviours were also influenced by race and ethnicity due to culture difference and language barriers [5]. However, inequalities in health information seeking is less known in Asian populations which, compared with the West, have different SES inequalities, telecommunication infrastructure and perceptions of health.

Only one study among Japanese has reported that lower education attainment and family income were associated with less health information seeking [7].

• UK newspapers ranked by circulation | Statistic

Explosive development of information technologies in recent years provides easier access to health information and thus may bridge inequalities in health communication [8]. However, the complexity of the use and interpretation of content on the Internet may hinder health communication access, seeking and uses among disadvantaged groups.

Health information seeking is also patterned by other demographic and lifestyle factors. HISB, particularly on Internet, is less frequent among the elderly probably due to the higher perceived barriers, poor health literacy and a lack of interest in self-health management [9].

In general, males and non-Hispanic Whites are less likely to seek health information [4]. HISB patterns may vary with lifestyle behaviours, for example, heavy smokers sought health information less frequently than light and moderate smokers [10].The Determinants of Media Bias in China Bei Qin Yanhui Wu David Strömberg December 28, with a daily circulation of around million1; These newspapers account for the major share of newspaper circulation and readership.

Within the general newspapers, we distinguish among "Daily".

Determinants of newspaper circulation

w Suresh De Mel David McKenzie Christopher Woodruff: Labor Drops: Experimental Evidence on the Return to Additional Labor in Microenterprises. Originally published in January of I was introduced to the practice of taking cold showers for multiple health benefits by a good friend in graduate school more than 20 years ago.

The Tour de France was the first cycling race set up and sponsored by the newspaper L'Auto, ancestor of the current daily, L'initiativeblog.com ran from 1 to 19 July in six stages over 2, km (1, mi), and was won by Maurice Garin..

The race was invented to boost the circulation of L'Auto, after its circulation started to plummet from competition with the long-standing Le Vélo.

DETERMINANTS OF NEWSPAPER CIRCULATION A Pooled Cross-Sectional Time-Series Study in the United States, ROBERT L. BISHOP KATHERINE SHARMA RICHARD J. BRAZEE University of Michigan For several years the first author of this study has been concerned with the historical development of communica-.

A Short Note On Social Responsibility And Macroeconomics - Beyond the power of controlling tax rates and government spending, members of the United States Senate have the job of confirming presidential nominees to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

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