Durkheim — the sacred and the profane Durkheim analysed religion and claimed; Societies divide the world into the sacred and the profane. The sacred are things set apart or forbidden which provoke strong feelings of awe, wonder or fear, often surrounded with taboos and prohibitions. The sacred are symbols representing something of great power — society itself as it is the only thing powerful enough to command such feelings. Therefore, people worship society itself when worshipping sacred symbols.
The history and doctrines of the major religions are discussed in Buddhism; Christianity; Hinduism; Islam; Judaism. The organizational aspects of religion are described in Monasticism; Psychiatry, article onthereligio-psychiatricmovement; Religious organization; Religious specialists; Sects and cults.
Various aspects of religious belief and practice are reviewed in Canon law; Civil disobedience; Death; Millenarism; Moral development ; Myth and symbol; Nativism and revivalism; Pollution; Religious observance; Ritual.
Other relevant material may be found in Charisma; Voluntary associations. Since the early discussion by Edward Tylor, interest in the beliefs and rituals of distant, ancient, or simpler peoples has been shaped by an awareness of contemporary issues. The questions that anthropologists have pursued among exotic religions have arisen from the workings—or the misworkings—of modern Western society, and particularly from its restless quest for self-discovery.
In turn, their findings have profoundly affected the course that quest has taken and the perspective at which it has arrived. Perhaps the chief reason for the rather special role of comparative religious studies is that issues which, when raised within the context of Western culture, led Evaluate the view that religion is extreme social resistance and personal turmoil could be freely and even comfortably handled in terms of bizarre, presumably primitive, and thus—also presumably—fanciful materials from long ago or far away.
This made it possible to approach all sorts of touchy subjects, such as polytheism, value relativism, possession, and faith healingfrom a frank and detached point of view. One could ask searching questions about the historicity of myth among Polynesians; when asked in relation to Christianity, these same questions were, until quite recently, deeply threatening.
The application of the comparative method—the essence of anthropological thought—to religion per mitted the growth of a resolutely scientific approach to the spiritual dimensions of human life. Through the thin disguise of comparative method the revolutionary implications of the work of such men as Tylor, Durkheim, Robertson Smith, Freud, Malinowski, and Radcliffe-Brown soon became apparent—at first mainly to philosophers, theologians, and literary figures, but eventually to the educated public in general.
The meticulous descriptions of tribal curiosities such as soul loss, shamanism, circumcision, blood sacrifice, sorcery, tree burial, garden magic, symbolic cannibalism, and animal worship have been caught up in some of the grander intellectual battles of the last hundred years—from those over evolutionism and historicism in the late nineteenth century to those over positivism and existentialism today.
Psychoanalysts and phenomenologists, Marxists and Kantians, racists and egalitarians, absolutists and relativists, empiricists and rationalists, believers and skeptics have all had recourse to the record—partial, inconsistent, and shot through with simple error as it is—of the spiritual life of tribal peoples to support their positions and belabor those of their opponents.
At least three major intellectual developments have exercised a critical influence on the anthropological study of religion: With the first of these came an emphasis on the nature of primitive reasoning and the stages of its evolution into civilized thought.
With the second came an investigation of the emotional basis of religious ritual and belief and the separate examination of the role of ritual and belief in social integration. The concern with value systems and other features of the ideational realm led to an exploration of the philosophical dimensions of religious ideas, particularly the symbolic vehicles in terms of which those ideas are expressed.
Evolutionism and its enemies Like so much else in anthropology, the study of the religious notions of primitive peoples arose within the context of evolutionary theory. In the nineteenth century, to think systematically about human affairs was to think historically—to seek out survivals of the most elementary forms and to trace the steps by which these forms subsequently developed.
And though, in fact, Tylor, Morgan, Frazer, and the rest drew more on the synthetic social-stage theories of such men as Comte and Hegel than on the analytic random-variation and natural-selection ideas of Darwin, the grand concept of evolution was shared by both streams of thought: For them a comprehensive, historically-oriented comparison of all forms of a phenomenon, from the most primitive to the most advanced, was the royal road to understanding the nature of the phenomenon itself.
Belief in spirits began as an uncritical but nonetheless rational effort to explain such puzzling empirical phenomena as death, dreams, and possession. The notion of a separable soul rendered these phenomena intelligible in terms of soul departure, soul wandering, and soul invasion.
Tylor believed that the idea of a soul was used to explain more and more remote and hitherto inexplicable natural occurrences, until virtually every tree and rock was haunted by some sort of gossamer presence. For this earnest Quaker the religious history of the world was a history of progressive, even inevitable, enlightenment.initiativeblog.com: The Nature of Doctrine: Religion and Theology in a Postliberal Age (): George A.
|Religion & Social Change||Religious organizations can be affected as they gradually adopt the worldview of society through the process of secularization, while society can be affected as religious adherents act out their religious belief systems in the world. Many religions teach about human rights, social justice, and social responsibility, and their adherents are likely to go out into the world and put their faith into practice.|
|Functionalist theories of religion | S.O.S Sociology||Sociologists study religion the same way they study other social institutions, like education or government. The aim is primarily to understand religions, but included in trying to understand religions is the aim of trying to predict what religions will eventually do or what will become of religions.|
|Related Link Pages||Print this page Introduction Virtually all religions include an explanation for life on Earth in their scriptures.|
Lindbeck: Books. Oct 09, · Essay improvements- Compare and evaluate different functionalist perspectives on religion. through using evaluation of other views on the functions of religion, and rounds of an essay.
Within the functionalist view of religion, there are several different perspectives that . Evaluate Functionalists views on the role and functions of religion today. Functionalism is a macro theory, which is based on society as a whole, rather than just that of the individual.
It is argued that functionalism generates many things for society. Feb 05, · New England Patriots star tight end Rob Gronkowski appeared to be unsure Sunday night whether he would return to the team next season. SECTION RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION OVERVIEW.
This Section of the Compliance Manual focuses on religious discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of (Title VII). Title VII protects workers from employment discrimination based on their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or protected activity.
Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d'honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification.