Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics.
Top 5 Essays on Earthquakes Geography Article shared by: An earthquake is a major demonstration of the power of the tectonic forces caused by endogenetic thermal conditions of the interior of the earth. The number indicating magnitude or intensity M on Richter scale ranges between 0 and 9 but in fact the scale has no upper limit of number because it is a logarithmic scale.
It is estimated that the total annual energy released by all earthquakes is about ergs, most of this is from a small number of earthquakes of magnitude over 7.
The Bihar earthquake measuring 8. The place of the origin of an earthquake is called focus which is always hidden inside the earth but its depth varies from place to place. The science, that deals with the seismic waves, is called seismology.
Volcanic activity is considered to be one of the major causes of earthquakes. In fact, vulcanicity and seismic events are so intimately related to each other that they become cause and effect for each other.
In other words, each volcanic eruption is followed by earthquakes and many of the severe earthquakes cause volcanic eruptions.
The explosive violent gases during the process of vulcanicity try to escape upward and hence they push the crustal surface from below with great force and thus is caused severe earth tremor of high magnitude.
It may be pointed out that the magnitude of such earthquakes depends upon the intensity of volcanic eruptions. The violent eruption of Krakatoa volcano between Java and Sumatra caused such a severe earthquake the impact of which was experienced as far away as Cape Horn some 12, km away.
Faulting and Elastic Rebound Theory: In fact, sudden dislocation of rock blocks caused by both tensile and compressive forces triggers immediate earth tremors due to sudden maladjustment of rock blocks. Underground active fault zone was suggested as one of the possible causes of Koyna earthquake Maharashtra of December 11, The stretching and pulling of crustal rocks due to tensile forces is slow process.
The rocks continue to be stretched so long as the tensile forces do not exceed the elasticity of the rocks but as the tensile forces exceed the rocks elasticity, they are broken and the broken rock blocks try immediately to occupy their previous positions so that they may adjust themselves.
All these processes occur so rapidly that the equilibrium of the concerned crustal surface is suddenly disturbed and hence earth tremors are caused. The famous earthquake of of California was caused due to creation of a massive fault in the Oven Valley.
Similarly, the Californian earthquake of April 18,was caused due to the formation of km long San Andreas Fault.
The earthquake of Sagami Bay of Japan was also believed to have been triggered by big fault.
Krishna Brahman and Janardhan G. They have claimed to have identified two active rift faults in Maharashtra beneath the Deccan Traps viz. Kurduvadi rift and Koyna rift. According to them Koyna rift begins from Kaladgi in Karnataka and runs for a distance of km through Koyna and terminates 40 km west of Nasik.
The km long Kurduvadi rift begins from 40 km south-west of Solapur and after running through Kurduvadi it merges with the Koyna rift to the north of Pune. According to them Bhatsa Dam is located at the junction of Tawi and Koyna faults.
They are of the opinion that gradual increase in the seismic events in Bhatsa Dam area since is because of active faulting beneath the basaltic crust. The Assam earthquake, Bihar earthquake and Bhuj earthquake Gujarat of India were caused mainly by faulting.
Hydrostatic Pressure and Anthropogenic Causes:While classification has been used as a method for organizing essays and paragraphs, classification and other traditional methods of organization [also] have come to be used as tools of invention, of systematically exploring subjects in order to develop ideas for an essay.
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Essay # 1. Introduction to Earthquake: An earthquake is a major demonstration of the power of the tectonic forces caused by endogenetic thermal conditions of the interior of the earth.
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