Although the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association APA states that it is preferable to use full-text sources as references, it does provide style guidelines for the citation of abstracts as sources. The exact format of your citation will depend on whether you are citing an abstract that appears in print or one that you accessed online. List the name of the author by placing the last name first followed by a comma.
Although it's tempting for evaluators to identify deficiencies and then specify coaching as a remediation strategy, doing so turns coaching into a consequence of a poor evaluation and termination into a consequence of failed coaching.
Another mistake is to use coaching as a data source for evaluation, for example, when an administrator asks a coach for information regarding teacher performance.
Tying evaluation and coaching together in these ways compromises both functions. At their best, evaluation and coaching should proceed on separate but complementary tracks.
Coaching supports excellence by tapping into five crucial factors: In addition, research shows that coaching in schools can best improve teacher practice when it's teacher-centered, no-fault, and strengths-based.
What Good Coaches Do Jim Knight Instructional coaching guru Jim Knight suggests that how we think about coaching can enhance or interfere with our success as a coach. He suggests that coaches take a partnership approach to collaboration and adopt seven principles that define how coaches interact with collaborating teachers: Coaches who act on the partnership principles enroll teachers, identify teachers' goals for their students, listen, ask questions, explain teaching practices, and provide feedback.
Modeling Lessons Katherine Casey As teachers learn new pedagogical strategies, they crave explicit demonstrations that show them how the new strategies will work with their students in their classrooms. Successful instructional coaches, therefore, understand the importance of modeling lessons to help teachers develop a vision of effective instruction.
The author, an experienced coach, provides practical tips on using both live and videotaped demonstration lessons to help teachers examine and improve their practice. For example, demonstration lessons should have a clear purpose and should be connected to ongoing, collaborative professional development.
Observing teachers should be actively engaged in the lesson—for example, by taking notes on specific students, or by jumping in at planned points to take over part of the instruction. Used effectively, says the author, demonstration lessons are a crucial part of coaching that can help schools build a common vision of effective instruction.
The Principal as Formative Coach Gabrielle Nidus and Maya Sadder Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders.
In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the formative coaching cycle to deepen the conversation following a classroom observation.
The article also describes how such one-on-one conversations can be expanded to improve professional conversations about teaching and learning throughout the school.
Learning from Instructional Rounds Elizabeth A. City Instructional rounds are a disciplined way for educators to work together to improve a school's instructional core. The practice combines three common elements of improvement: Instructional rounds differ from supervision and evaluation in that people doing rounds learn something themselves.
It's not about "fixing" individual teachers. Rather, rounds are about understanding what's happening in classrooms, how we as a system produce those effects, and how we can move closer to producing the learning we want to see. The process of doing rounds involves gathering a group of colleagues who will meet together over time, defining a problem of practice, visiting classrooms in small groups, debriefing after the observation, identifying next levels of work, and building the group's knowledge and skills about that work.
Zigmond, Madeleine Gregg and Robert A. Gable Amid budget cuts in U. The authors describe virtual coaching—in which a coach interacts electronically with a teacher as a lesson unfolds—as a promising way to help teachers with weak teaching skills.
Virtual coaching uses online and mobile technology termed bug in ear to allow a coach located down the hall or across the country to observe a teacher's lesson and offer discreet, running feedback through an earpiece the teacher wears.
Rock and colleagues, who have worked as virtual coaches to dozens of teachers, describe how such a set-up can help struggling novices break through to solid teaching skills. Because the coach provides feedback, helpful criticism, and suggestions as a lesson progresses, virtual coaching can shape teaching, and teachers' awareness of their weaknesses, in a way traditional coaching can't.
It also saves time and money. The authors discuss the skills and conditions needed to make virtual coaching successful, and the kind of technology and equipment both teacher and coach need to proceed including sample prices.
Coaches as System Leaders Michael Fullan and Jim Knight The role of school leadership—of principals and coaches—must be played out on a systems level to get widespread and sustainable improvement.
Successful, whole-system education reform relies on capacity building, teamwork, pedagogy, and systemic reform.
The strategies of good coaches and the right drivers for whole-system reform go hand in hand. Too often, however, coaches are unable to do their work because they're asked to do quasi-administrative tasks instead of focusing on student learning, have unclear goals concerning what they are to accomplish in their schools, and don't receive adequate training.
Beneath a deceptively congenial surface, teachers at this Mexican preK-9th grade school were avoiding professional confrontations and rarely observed one another's classes or shared teaching solutions and innovations. That same year, the school's elementary division implemented a new student-centered math program that challenged teachers' traditional methods of operating.Nov 09, · Article SummaryX.
To write an abstract, start with a short paragraph that explains the purpose of your paper and what it's about. Then, write a paragraph explaining any arguments or claims you make in your paper. Follow that with a third paragraph that details the research methods you used and any evidence you found for your claims%().
Get details on your fair dates, online shopping, volunteer opportunities, and more. Doc Savage is a fictional character originally published in American pulp magazines during the s and s.
He was created by publisher Henry W. Ralston and editor John L. Nanovic at Street & Smith Publications, with additional material contributed by the series' main writer, Lester initiativeblog.com illustrations were by Walter Baumhofer, Paul Orban, Emery Clarke, Modest Stein, and Robert G.
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Before I begin, let me make a very clear statement: I don’t believe that technology in our classrooms is a silver bullet. Adding technology cannot alone increase engagement, empower our students, and lead to academic and life success (during and long after school is over).
Cool Schools. The Khan Academy isn’t the only site changing the way we learn—and teach. From lessons on quantum mechanics that can be downloaded .