Aspects of anthropological methods covered are:
Sigerist Stemmatics or stemmatology is a rigorous approach to textual criticism. Karl Lachmann — greatly contributed to making this method famous, even though he did not invent it.
This specific meaning shows the relationships of the surviving witnesses the first known example of such a stemma, albeit with the name, dates from Relations between the lost intermediates are determined by the same process, placing all extant manuscripts in a family tree or stemma codicum descended from a single archetype.
The process of constructing the stemma is called recension, or the Latin recensio. If one reading occurs more often than another at the same level of the tree, then the dominant reading is selected. If two competing readings occur equally often, then the editor uses judgment to select the correct reading.
The step of examination, or examinatio is applied to find corruptions. Where the editor concludes that the text is corrupt, it is corrected by a process called "emendation", or emendatio also sometimes called divinatio.
Emendations not supported by any known source are sometimes called conjectural emendations. The steps of examinatio and emendatio resemble copy-text editing. In fact, the other techniques can be seen as special cases of stemmatics in which a rigorous family history of the text cannot be determined but only approximated.
If it seems that one manuscript is by far the best text, then copy text editing is appropriate, and if it seems that a group of manuscripts are good, then eclecticism on that group would be proper.
In biology, the technique is used to determine the evolutionary relationships between different species. The manuscripts are then grouped according to their shared characteristics. The difference between phylogenetics and more traditional forms of statistical analysis is that, rather than simply arranging the manuscripts into rough groupings according to their overall similarity, phylogenetics assumes that they are part of a branching family tree and uses that assumption to derive relationships between them.
This makes it more like an automated approach to stemmatics. However, where there is a difference, the computer does not attempt to decide which reading is closer to the original text, and so does not indicate which branch of the tree is the "root"—which manuscript tradition is closest to the original.
Other types of evidence must be used for that purpose.
Phylogenetics faces the same difficulty as textual criticism: The same phenomenon is widely present among living organisms, as instances of horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer and genetic recombinationparticularly among bacteria.
Further exploration of the applicability of the different methods for coping with these problems across both living organisms and textual traditions is a promising area of study. Shaw's edition of Dante's Commedia uses phylogenetic and traditional methods alongside each other in a comprehensive exploration of relations among seven early witnesses to Dante's text.
If a scribe refers to more than one source when creating his copy, then the new copy will not clearly fall into a single branch of the family tree. In the stemmatic method, a manuscript that is derived from more than one source is said to be contaminated.
The method also assumes that scribes only make new errors—they do not attempt to correct the errors of their predecessors. When a text has been improved by the scribe, it is said to be sophisticated, but "sophistication" impairs the method by obscuring a document's relationship to other witnesses, and making it more difficult to place the manuscript correctly in the stemma.Professional, legal, ethical and social issues 1- Overview • Ways in which your profession decides what actions are appropriate and inappropriate through codes and standards, computer law, and ethical decision International standards can also govern your professional activities.
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