Setting events can be due to environmental, social, or physiological factors. Occurrences that affect a behavior at one point in time may change the likelihood of a targeted behavior at a later point. Showcase Portfolio - a selection of work representing a student's progress and achievements.
While this can be done by directly working with the student, it is likely to be greatly assisted by advising caregivers to assist the individual with these five pathways of SR.
Various cognitive behavioral therapies may prove useful at the re-appraisal pathway. The point here is not to map out all possible ways by which these five vectors of SR could be used to boost EF in those with EF deficits, but to make clinicians cognizant that such pathways are available.
Related to this idea of motivational deficits accompanying EF disorders such as ADHD is the literature on self-regulatory strength and the resource pool of effort will power associated with activities of SR. There is abundant literature on this topic that has been overlooked by neuropsychologists studying EF, yet it has a direct bearing on EF given that EF is viewed as SR.
As nicely summarized by Bauer and Baumeister8 research indicates that each implementation of EF working memory, inhibition, planning, reasoning, problem-solving, etc. This can result in students being less capable of SR EF in subsequent situations or in immediately succeeding time periods.
Such temporary depletions may be further exacerbated by stress, alcohol or other drug use, illness, or even low levels of blood glucose.
Research also indicates what factors may serve to more rapidly replenish the resource pool. Some research further suggests that the actual capacity of the resource pool may be boosted by routine physical exercise and by routine practicing of tasks involving self-regulation daily for two weeks.
That means that mental problem-solving is difficult for them. To assist them, try to think of ways to make the problem, or parts of the problem, physical in various ways so that the child can manipulate the parts of the problem manually to facilitate mentally held information. For instance, if they have mental arithmetic to do, let them have some marbles, a number line, an abacus, or some other way to physically count and manipulate the information to help them solve the math problems.
If the child has a written essay to do, encourage them to use 3x5 file cards and to write a different idea on each card as the ideas come to mind.
Just have them think and free associate to the assigned topic. As each idea is stated, have them write it down on a separate card. I am sure you can think of other ways to do this for a child or teen with ADHD. Intervene at the Point of Performance in Natural Settings Given the above principles, clinicians should likely reject most approaches to intervention for students with ADHD related EF deficits that do not involve helping them with an active intervention at the point of performance.
Once-per-week tutoring is unlikely to succeed with the student with deficient EF without efforts to insert accommodations at key points of performance in natural settings to address the impaired domains of educational activities. This is not to say that extensive training or retraining of EF, as with working memory training, may not have some short-term benefits.
The approach taken to its management must be the same as that taken in the management of other chronic medical or psychiatric disabilities.
Diabetes is an analogous condition to many forms of EF deficits. At the time of diagnosis, all involved must realize that there is currently no cure for the condition. Still, multiple means of treatment can provide symptomatic relief from the deleterious effects of the condition, including taking daily doses of medication and changing settings, tasks, and lifestyles.
Immediately following diagnosis, the clinician works to educate the patient and family on the nature of the chronic disorder, and then designs and implements a treatment package for the condition. This package must be maintained over long periods to maintain the symptomatic relief that the treatments initially achieve.
However, each patient is different and so is each instance of the chronic condition being treated. As a result, symptom breakthroughs and crises are likely to occur periodically over the course of treatment that may demand re-intervention or the design and implementation of modified or entirely new treatment packages.
Changes to the environment that may assist those with the disorder are not viewed as somehow correcting earlier faulty learning or leading to permanent improvements that can permit the treatments to be withdrawn.
Instead, the more appropriate view of psychological treatment is one of designing a prosthetic educational environment that allows the student to better cope with and compensate for the disorder going forward.
Behavioral and other technologies used to assist people with ADHD related EF deficits are akin to artificial limbs, hearing aids, wheel chairs, ramps, and other prostheses that reduce the handicapping impact of a disability and thus allow the individual greater access to and better performance of their major life activities.
Those methods provide the additional social and cultural scaffolding around the student with EF deficits so that performance in that specific setting can be more effective. Rules and instructions provided to children with ADHD must be clear, brief, and often delivered through more visible and external modes of presentation than is required for the management of normal children.
Stating directions clearly, having the child repeat them out loud, having the child utter them softly to themselves while following through on the instruction, and displaying sets of rules or rule-prompts e.
Represent time and time periods externally physically. Children with ADHD are less capable of using their sense of time to manage their current behavior and get work done in time, over time, and on time. When short time intervals of an hour or less are required to do work, then represent that time period using a clock, kitchen timer, counting device or other external means to show the child how much time they have left and how quickly it is passing.
For longer time periods, break the work down into shorter periods with smaller work quotas and allow the child to take frequent breaks between these shorter work periods.
Consequences used to manage the behavior of ADHD children must be delivered swiftly and more immediately than is needed for normal children. Delays in consequences greatly degrade their efficacy for children with ADHD. As will be noted throughout this chapter, the timing and strategic application of consequences with children with ADHD must be more systematic and is far more crucial to their management than for normal children.
This is not just true for rewards, but is especially so for punishment, which can be kept mild and still effective by delivering it as quickly upon the misbehavior as possible.Literacy is traditionally defined as the ability to read and write.
In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. A more broad interpretation is literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area. The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. History: Kilgore College is a publicly supported, two-year, comprehensive community college offering postsecondary educational opportunities.
In Kilgore College was the idea of Mr. W. L. Dodson and the community of Kilgore, Texas. About this List. These entries are from e-mail, online book lists, and the bibliographies included in books and papers.
This will always be a work in progress in that I am constantly adding to it and correcting it. Several assumptions are important in understanding the initial model as it is applied to ADHD: (1) The capacity for behavioral inhibition begins to emerge first in development, ahead of most or all these four executive functions but possibly in conjunction with the first, nonverbal working memory.
LEARNING DISABILITY. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills (ICD 10) Mixed Disorder of Scholastic Skills (ICD 10) DEFINITION “Learning Disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing.
The A1 suffix is typically seen as part of an application identification number or grant number and “A1” is often used to refer to a new, renewal, or revision application that is amended and resubmitted after the review of a previous application with the same project number.