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Literature The peoples of South Asia have had a continuous literature from the first appearance in the Punjab of a branch of the Indo-European-speaking peoples who also settled all of Europe and Iran.
In India this branch of Indo-Aryans, as they are usually called, met earlier inhabitants with different languages and no doubt a different culture—possibly a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley civilization, which had a script, and perhaps a literature of its own, of which nothing is known.
Certain to have been settled in India were peoples who spoke languages of Dravidian origin, as well as other languages, called Munda, now preserved only by aboriginal tribes, which show affinities with the languages of Southeast Asia.
The earliest literature is of a sacred character and dates from about bc in the form of the Rigveda. The language of the Rigveda, which is a compilation of hymns to the high gods of the Aryan religion, is complex and archaic.
This language is called Sanskrit Tongue Perfected. Sanskrit has had a scarcely interrupted literature from about bc until today, but its greatest efflorescence was in the classical period, from the 1st to 7th centuries ad. In a further development of these dialects, the early beginnings can be seen of modern Indo-Aryan languages of northern India: Bengali also the language of BangladeshHindi the official language of the Republic of India sinceRajasthani, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Kashmiri, Oriya, Assamese, and Sindhi, each of which produced a literature of its own.
Their names are derived from the regions in which they are spoken, regions with uncertain boundaries, where the different dialects fused at the borders. They all retained a close family resemblance that made bilingualism easy and a fact of Indian literary life.
Far more marked was the difference between Indo-Aryan speech and the languages of the Dravidian family, which are structurally wholly different, though in time a measure of convergence took place.
Among them, the oldest recorded is Tamil, now the language of Tamil Nadu Madras state and of northern Sri Lanka, whose literature goes back to the early centuries of the Christian Era. In spite of this linguistic differentiation, the literatures composed in all of these languages reflect, in different degrees, the monumental influence of Sanskrit literatureSanskrit being the universal Indian language of culture.
This influence was one of both substance and form: Campbased on Hindi; Urdu was the lingua franca of the army. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan.
Its influence, however, does not compare with that of Sanskrit. Comparable to the impact of Sanskrit, but far more alien, is that of Englishwhich began to assert itself in the 18th century.
The language brought with it new literary forms that were gradually adapted to the old ones, producing new genres—without necessarily giving up the older ones—in the local languages and giving rise to an interesting literature in the English language. Once more, a universal cultural language to a large extent unified aims in the scattered languages; English still plays this role, though it appears to be slowly declining.
Not literary but religious-magical in its purposes, it is mostly a compilation of hymns, dedicated to a number of gods of the Vedic religion. They have the regular structure of an invocation: The poets, of whom little is known, appear to have come at the close of a priestly poetical tradition, rivalling one another in allusions to obscure exploits, in language often opaque and at times intended to mystify.
Nevertheless, the Rigvedic hymns include lines of great beauty. Or they may occur in poetry addressed to a deity whose beauty inspires the poet to well-turned lines. To the Dawns, for example: He yokes these brown steeds early in the morning, And, when the fire is low, sinks down an outcast.
There are thy cows, there is thy wife, O gambler. Although not literary in purpose, the Rigveda had a decisive influence on the form of Sanskrit poetry: The second Veda c. More literary interest attaches to the fourth Veda bcthe Atharvaveda an atharvan was a special priestwhich contains hymns, incantations, and many magic charms.
The succeeding literature c. They were written in a dry, expository prose, so that only their narrative portions have any literary interest. These prose texts at times convey the actual mode of teaching of a revered sage, in a style that can be strikingly intimate: Believe me, my dear.
They are the oldest examples of didactic verse, a genre that later gained enormous popularity.
The contribution of late-Vedic texts to later literature is preeminently that of the development of an expository prose style and the evolution of a sacred language, which, in order to be effective, must be completely correct.
This language, Sanskrit, remained the language par excellence for later literature and was used for literary purposes until the 13th century and, epigonically, until today. The close of the Vedic period was one of great cultural renewal, with the founding of the new monastic religions of Buddhism and Jainism 6th century bc and the more slowly emerging rearticulation of Brahminism into Hinduism.
Neither the earliest Buddhists nor the Jains availed themselves of Sanskrit in their preachings, apparently viewing the language as the preserve of a Brahmin elite.
Originally charioteers to noblemen and thus witnesses of their feats, they chronicled the martial history of the families to which they were attached.
From these beginnings, part chronicle, part panegyric, developed the epic style.
Generally, one metre is used throughout the poem, though for stylistic effects other metres may be interspersed. Its characters go back to around bc, but in its present form the epic could not have been composed before bc.GadgetsNetworks is your news, entertainment, music & fashion website.
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This is probably my favourite children's Hindi book. The Hindi is simple, the font is clear, the story is entertaining and the pictures are gorgeous. Punjabi (/ p ʌ n ˈ dʒ ɑː b i /; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pãjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی paṉjābī) is an Indo-Aryan language with more than million native speakers worldwide.
It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region of initiativeblog.com Punjab extends from northwest India through eastern Pakistan.. As of , Punjabi is .
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